Agarwood Oil Nanoemulsion Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Markers in BCi-NS1.1 Airway Epithelial Cells

Agarwood Oil Nanoemulsion Attenuates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Markers in BCi-NS1.1 Airway Epithelial Cells


COPD is a lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. It's caused by smoking and leads to lung damage. There are treatments to reduce symptoms, but they don't stop the damage. Plant extracts, like agarwood oil, can help because they have things that fight inflammation and damage in the body. But these extracts are hard to use because they don't dissolve well. Scientists made a special mix called agarwood oil nanoemulsion (agarwood-NE) to make it easier to use. They tested it on cells damaged by cigarette smoke and found that it could reduce inflammation and increase good chemicals in the cells that help repair the damage. They also found that it can activate a pathway that helps cells survive. This study shows that agarwood-NE could be a good treatment for COPD because it can help fight damage and inflammation in the lungs.



COPD is a serious lung disease that causes difficulty in breathing, coughing, and other symptoms. It's caused by smoking and other factors. People with COPD often have to go to the hospital, which can be expensive. The disease damages the lungs in many ways, including inflammation and oxidative stress. Smoking and other factors can cause inflammation, which makes the disease worse. Oxidative stress happens when there are too many harmful chemicals in the body. This can lead to tissue damage and other problems.



In this study, researchers extracted agarwood oil from Aquilaria crassna by chopping and grinding the plant material into a powder and leaving it to air dry for 14 days to reduce moisture content. The essential oil was then extracted from the powder using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction. The extracted essential oil was characterized by DeÁurora Pty Ltd and found to be a transparent, slightly viscous liquid with a deep woody aroma. The researchers then prepared an agarwood nanoemulsion by dissolving Poloxamer 407 in purified distilled water and adding it to the agarwood oil. The nanoemulsion was characterized for size and polydispersity index and was found to be composed of droplets with a spherical morphology of 180 ± 4.7 nM diameter and 0.36 ± 0.03 polydispersity index. The researchers then grew human airway epithelium-derived basal cells (BCi-NS1.1) in broncho-epithelial basal media and treated them with the agarwood nanoemulsion. The cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The results showed that agarwood-NE had no significant effect on cell viability, and it could potentially protect against the harmful effects of cigarette smoke extract on human airway epithelial cells.



A study investigated the effects of agarwood essential oil (agarwood-NE) on inflammation caused by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human lung cells. The researchers found that CSE increased the levels of several pro-inflammatory proteins, while reducing the levels of anti-inflammatory proteins. However, treatment with agarwood-NE reversed these effects, reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory proteins and increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory proteins. The effects were observed at both low and high concentrations of agarwood-NE. These findings suggest that agarwood-NE has potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the context of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.



COPD is a respiratory disease that causes irreversible airflow obstruction and periodic exacerbations. Cigarette smoking is the primary cause, as it causes inflammation and oxidative stress in the lungs. Treatment strategies involve pulmonary rehabilitation, smoke cessation, and medication. However, COPD remains a significant medical and financial burden worldwide, necessitating novel therapies. Plant-based compounds, such as essential oils from agarwood, have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Still, they face issues such as low bioavailability and water solubility. Nanoemulsion drug delivery systems are a promising solution. The study reports that agarwood extract oil formulated in a poloxamer 407-based nanoemulsion demonstrates anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Cigarette smoke contains many compounds with oxidative, pro-inflammatory, and carcinogenic properties, leading to the development of COPD. CS induces a pro-inflammatory state and inactivates pathways that lead to the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Agarwood-NE was found to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and GDF-15. Furthermore, agarwood-NE increased the levels of IL-10, IL-18BP, GH, and VDBP, which are anti-inflammatory mediators.



This study shows that agarwood-NE has strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. It can stop some pathways that cause inflammation and damage in human airway cells when they are exposed to cigarette smoke. Agarwood-NE has the potential to be a treatment for respiratory diseases like COPD, but more research is needed to confirm these findings in the lab and in animals before using it on people.

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